Eye Health

The Eyes in dry season

Oftentimes, as the seasons change, different body parts respond differently. In a dry season, the eye is exposed to a variety of allergens which results in discomfort that varies in intensity from person to person. What happens in an allergy season?


An allergy can simply be described as an abnormal response of the body to an otherwise harmless substance. Antibodies begin to fight these substances by releasing some chemicals. These chemicals, in turn, cause unpleasant feelings and general discomfort such as itching, sneezing, etc.
This season occurs at different times in different parts of the World. For some people, during Spring, allergies worsen especially those allergic to tree pollen. At Summer and late Spring, grass allergies are intense, while Fall is problematic for those allergic to mould or outdoor fungi. Another factor that counts in this season is the weather. Pollen counts fluctuate with temperature, humidity and wind.
In Nigeria, it occurs between October and early March with peak dry conditions between early December and late February. This period coincides with the season of Christmas and end of year holidays. In this season, birds migrate, puddles dry up and the sun rays get even hotter. In the tropics, it is characterized by the ‘Harmattan’ wind (an extremely dry wind which blows from the Sahara desert and picks up dust particles and debris in its way, thereby spreading it in the atmosphere) causing health hazards to the skin, eyes, nose/respiratory system and mouth.
Since health is at risk, it is only befitting that we take steps to keep ourselves safe from disease vectors and pathogens to ensure we enjoy the season in good health.


1. The dry season brings with it a very dry weather that reduces sweating, thereby increasing body heat.
2. There is a high production of pollen grains from blooming flowering plants and the dry wind increases their concentration level in the air and environment.
3. The ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the earth and have greater ability to cause damage to body cells.
4. The dry weather causes more leaves to wither and more bush-burning is done causing air pollution as a result of toxic fumes to the environment.
5. The high concentration of dust particles in the air also aids the carrying capacity for airborne infectious diseases.


Scientific authorities have proof that weather changes affect people’s health. Allergic reactions increase during the dry season as a result of the increase in pollen production from flowering plants. Allergens from bacteria, fungi and virus when in contact with the conjunctiva (a thin, clear, moist membrane that lines the inner parts of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye) cause tissue swelling and inflammation (Conjunctivitis; also known as Apollo). The immune system gets attacked and tries to fight the allergens. The interaction of the allergens and the immune system leads to itching, watering and swelling.
The eyes could then get infected if the viral, bacterial or fungal allergens win the war leading to red and discharging eyes. There is increased tendency for eyes to get dry, hurt and burn during this season because there is an imbalance between tear production from the tear ducts and moisture evaporation from the front surface of the eyes. This leads to symptoms of irritation, grittiness, itching or a feeling of something stuck in the eyes (foreign body sensation). Tearing will increase thereby blurring vision.
Extremes of temperature (fall in barometric pressure), sharp rise in humidity, the sudden drop in temperature can trigger migraine headaches more in this season.
Asthma becomes even more problematic during this season both for exercise-induced asthma and pollen-induced asthma. This is because of cold weather in the former and pollen grains and dust particles in the latter.
Heart disease symptoms are increased due to extremes of temperature, especially in the aged and children. Drop in temperature and rise in humidity increases the risk of joint pains in arthritic patients. Increased temperature and heat waves also increase risk for meningitis and stroke (Cardiovascular Accidents).
UV rays have caused Corneal and Retinal burns in the past and studies show an increased risk of skin cancer, especially in albinos in this season.


1. Extreme personal hygiene is of utmost importance. Long nails, dirty hands and hair may serve as a reservoir for infectious agents. False eyelashes may not allow your eyes to breathe.
2. A clean house/surroundings keep you protected from mites, roaches, rodents, mould and dampness. Dust/clean all exposed surfaces frequently. Wash the curtains/drapes, beddings and pay special attention to kitchens, bathrooms, basements and laundry areas as they could be hiding places for pathogens and disease vectors. A clean home doesn’t allow allergens to thrive.
3. Boost your immunity through good nutrition, fresh air, and health/age-appropriate exercises. Fermented/leftover foods should be avoided because they contain histamine which triggers allergic responses. Avoid long outdoor activities. Wearing wide-rimmed hats and rubbing sunscreen with Sun Protection Factor (SPF) ≥15 is useful.
4. When travelling on dusty roads, protect your eyes with sun shields or handkerchiefs, better still, try travelling in the early mornings or late evenings.
5. Rehydrate by drinking lots of water. While indoors, an air-conditioner with a humidifier helps to avoid drying up the air. Humidity can be maintained at 35-45%.
6. Wear masks while cutting grass, digging around plants or picking leaves outdoors.
7. Sunglasses especially the “wrap around” types can be useful because they block UV rays, dust and pollens from entering the eyes.
8. Avoid self-medication and traditional practices in eye health. Consult your Eye Doctor for evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of eye problems.


Your Optometrist or Ophthalmologist is trained to differentiate between symptoms and come to a correct diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment as Bacterial, Viral and Fungal red eyes have different treatment pathways. You may need anti-infectives, antihistamines, decongestants, artificial tears, eye washes or sunglasses and counselling. So avoid self-medication.
Not all dark shades have UV protection. Your Eyecare professional is in a better position to determine the transmission factor of your sunglasses.

Photo credit: John Stanmeyer. National Geographic

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Dr. Uduak Isong
Dr Uduak Isong is an excellent Optometrist, a compassionate caregiver and she believes health education is vital to building a healthy society. She loves reading and intelligent discussions. Apart from clinical practice, she enjoys playing the keyboard and teaching children.

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  1. This is nice

  2. Thanks Dr. Great piece and very educative

  3. cool ?

  4. Great article Dr. Uduak thanks for the insight once again

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